43 comments

  1. WE TURKS WILL TAKE BACK BULGARISTAN AND SIRBISTAN BECAUSE
    WE ARE THE TRUE OWNERS OF THE LAND NOT THE PRESENT SLAVISIZED
    THEN WE WILL TAKE YUNANISTAN AND CYPRUS
    ERDOGAN = NEW OSMANLI EMPIRE 2021

  2. Hello, just dropping the fact that the Turkic theory is A SPECULATION and it is not yet proven, but instead – proved to be inaccurate. Various sources like wikipedia still say that bulgars were turkic but even wikipedia pages DO NOT match up at this. HERE IS SOLID PROOF ABOUT THAT:

    There is no ANY real proof that Bulgars spoke turkic language, neider were turkic looking. In all Byzantium mosaics Bulgars are shown as Indo-European looking for example check this one (checkhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omurtag_of_Bulgaria) this was Kanas Omurtag and than check Ghengis Khan here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genghis_Khan) and you will see the difference between turkic people and bulgars. Weirdly Bulgars really look the same as thracians in the Kazanluck Tomb (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thracian_Tomb_of_Kazanlak)

    Also the title KHAN is speculative and the only proven title was of Omurtag's KANAS U BIGIM and KANAS probably became KNAZ, then KNYAZ and U BIGIM – U BOGIM (meaning both in old church slavonic and modern bulgarian King in God (King faithful to god) even Wikipedia says that Khan is speculative and there is no real evidence for using the title Khan https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanasubigi
    REAL PROOF is the Omurtags stones https://bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9E%D0%BC%D1%83%D1%80%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%B3#/media/%D0%A4%D0%B0%D0%B9%D0%BB:Omurtag10_svik.jpg

    For wikipedia users here is proof that even wikipedia dont know if bulgars are turkic

    For example here we see that wikipedia says bulgars are turkic using the turkic title Khan:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgars

    But here it says that Khan is just a speculative title and the only proven to exist title was Kanas Ubigi: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanasubigi

    Another proof is that not a single source or country ever called them turkic – neither Byzantium, neither Romans, but Hungarians for example were called Turki and their country was called Turkia by the Romans

    Old Great Bulgaria was called Patria Onuguria giving idiots a "proof" that it was turkic but actually it is a historical name related to Phanagor who discovered the land north of Black see, so it was named Phanagoria. Kanas Kubrat was raised in Constantinopole where he probably learned the name Phanagoria which he and his people probably became using but with time so it became the name of the Capital of Great Bulgaria. Later Phanagoria became Onogoria because the Ph- droped like in many other words, which explains why it was called Onogoria or Onoguria just like in one Byzantium source https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Great_Bulgaria

    For Volga Bulgars they were the one assimilated to Turkic people, just look at the names and you will see that Kotrag (Bulgar name) is way way different from Talib bine ahmad, showing that not just they converted to islam, but they also became turkic speaking.

    It is biologicaly proven that once you have some genes you cant loose them 0%. which gives us explanation why modern Bulgarians do not have asian blood but people living in the area around volga still have high percent of Indo-European blood

    Also I noticed that exactly at the same (1:37) time both bulgaria converted to christianity and Volga Bulgaria to Islam and which is inclining me to think that there was a possible history falsification for Volga Bulgaria and just copypasting lot of history

    My personal theory is that due to political reasons during the communist rule it was told that we are turkic to show us that the Great Ussr saved us and thanks to Slavianization of Bulgaria it became civilazed state. In other words- no Russia – no slavs – no civilazed Bulgaria which also explains that why we know bulgaria existed before 681 but still today it is accepted that only when slavs united with bulgars Bulgaria became a state in 681.

    But actualy in the byzantium peace act it is written that Bulgaria just gain land and it is not reestablished. Also the byzantium fleet was only used when a HUGE DANGER is about to come and never was used to fight nomadic tribes, showing that Great Bulgaria just gained land,

    And volga bulgaria was not another country but Great Bulgaria was splitted in half by Azars which also explains why Both countries had the same name and were treated like one country by historians at that time.

    Kotrag and Asparuh were probably countroling different parts of the country (they were bolyars which form of rule later was used in Dunable bulgaria) while batbayan was the central emperor of the country which explains why every bulgar ruler gained land but this one stayed in the country

    Its not what wikipedia or Irechek or Russians or Bulgarians or Oxford says. It is just a little to know and just a simple logic

  3. That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. – Romans 10:9 from the Bible ❤

  4. Old Great Bulgaria its not called by our ENEMIES ''OLD'' and ''GREAT'', because it last less then 100 years, no enemy is making compliments like this if the country is around for less then 100 years…the first written in ''The Namelist of bulgarian kanas'' is kanasubigi Avitohol – ruler from 145/6 year AD…soo what Im seeing on that map as beguining is few hundrets years later and not even close depicted as teritory and timing for ''old'' ot ''great'', Its just not correct. Old Great Bulgaria was from Donabe till Ural and over the two seas and between them till todays Georgia south border or even a bit south between the seas

  5. WE TURKS WILL TAKE BACK BULGARISTAN AND SIRBISTAN BECAUSE
    WE ARE THE TRUE OWNERS OF THE LAND NOT THE PRESENT SLAVISIZED
    THEN WE WILL TAKE YUNNANISTAN AND CYPRUS
    ERDOGAN=NEW OSMANLI EMPIRE 2021

  6. Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Byzantine Greek: Παλαιά Μεγάλη Βουλγαρία, Palaiá Megálē Voulgaría), also often known by the Latin names Magna Bulgaria[3] and Patria Onoguria ("Onogur land"),[4] was a 7th-century state formed by the Onogur Bulgars on the western Pontic-Caspian steppe (modern southern Ukraine and southwest Russia).[5] Great Bulgaria was originally centered between the Dniester and lower Volga.

    Later Byzantine scholars implied that the Bulgars had previously been known as the Onogurs (Onoğur). Agathon wrote about the "nation of Onogur Bulğars"],Nikephoros I stated that Kubrat was lord of the Onogundurs, Theophanes referred to them as Onogundur Bulgars and Constantine VII remarked that the Bulgars formerly called themselves Onogundurs. Variations of the name include Onoguri, Onoghuri, Onghur, Ongur, Onghuri, Onguri, Onogundur, Unogundur, and Unokundur. There are several theories about the origin of the name Onogur. In some Turkic languages on means "10" and ğur "arrow"; and "ten arrows" might imply a federation of ten tribes, i.e. the Western Turkic Khaganate. Within the Turkic languages, "z" sounds in the easternmost languages tend to have become "r" in the westernmost Turkic languages; therefore, the ethnonym Oghuz may be the source of Oghur; that is, on Oğur would mean "ten clans of Oghuz".

    Old Great Bulgaria (Magna Bulgaria[29]), also known as Onoghundur–Bulgars state, or Patria Onoguria in the Ravenna Cosmography.[30][31][20] Constantine VII (mid-10th century) remarked that the Bulgars formerly called themselves Onogundurs.[32]

    Both names are best explained as corresponding to Onogundur, an old name in Greek sources for the Bulgars.

    https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/khazars

    Nikephoros I stated that Kubrat was lord of the Onogundurs, Theophanes referred to them as Onogundur Bulgars and Constantine VIIremarked that the Bulgars formerly called themselves Onogundurs. Variations of the name include Onoguri, Onoghuri, Onghur, Ongur, Onghuri, Onguri, Onogundur, Unogundur, and Unokundur.

  7. The endangered Chuvash language is the only living representative of the Bulgar branch, the earliest offshoot of Proto-Turkic (PT), which is in many respects opposed to the Common Turkic (CT) languages. Evidence from Chuvash is of vital importance in reconstructing Proto-Turkic, particularly its phonology. Chuvash represents characteristic features of the Bulgar branch, such as two types of rhotacism (PT *ŕ > CT /z/, Bulg. /r/; PT *δ > Bulg. /r/ with /j/, /d/, /t/ and /z/ in different subgroups of CT), lambdacism (PT *λ > CT /š/, Bulg. /l/), the “Bulgar palatalization” (PT *s- > Bulg. /š-/ and PT *t- > Bulg. /č-/ in certain contexts) etc. (Dybo 2010; Róna-Tas & Berta 2011). These correspondences provide a more complete reconstruction of the Proto-Turkic phonological system.

  8. THE VOLGA BULGAR AMIRATE:TURKIC EXPANSION NORTH OF THE STEPPE. In the aftermath of the Hunnic invasion, various Turkic peoples known as Bulgars entered the south Russian steppe from Kazakhstan.

    Noonan, T. (2000). European Russia, c. 500–c. 1050. In T. Reuter (Ed.), The New Cambridge Medieval History (The New Cambridge Medieval History, pp. 485-513). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521364478.020

    A variety of Slavic, and according to some scholars, Bulgar-Turkic peoples gained political significance in the Carpathian basin. Several Slavic dukes, who were at the same time Frankish clients and leaders of war bands, emerged over separate principalities.

    Berend, N., Urbańczyk, P., & Wiszewski, P. (2013). The history of the region and the question of origins. In Central Europe in the High Middle Ages: Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, c.900–c.1300 (Cambridge Medieval Textbooks, pp. 40-109). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511813795.002

    For that time,too,the Bulgarians,originally Turkic invaders of the Balkans from Asia via the north of the Black sea in the late seventh century,had become completely assimilated to the Slav majority.

    For that time,to the,

    RUSSIAN: A LINGUISTIC INTRODUCTION. Paul Cubberley. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. pp.6

    They colonised areas of the eastern Balkans and in the seventh century other Slav tribes combined with the Proto-Bulgars, a group of Turkic origin, to launch a fresh assault into the Balkans.

    Crampton, R. (2005). THE BULGARIAN LANDS FROM PREHISTORY TO THE ARRIVAL OF THE BULGARIANS. In A Concise History of Bulgaria (Cambridge Concise Histories, pp. 1-8). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    We know that the Avars,whose great days were long past by 700,were subject to a khagan,because a Frankish source was under the imperssion that such was the ruler’s name.Asparuch,ruler of the Bulgars,another Turkic people that had established itself south of the Danube by 700,must also have been a ‘khan’,to judge by inscriptions of his successors.

    Fouracre, P. (Ed.). (2005). The New Cambridge Medieval History (The New Cambridge Medieval History). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press pp.572. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521362917

    This ruling elite dominated a large state.While precise boundaries are unclear,Volga Bulgaria included substantial Finnic and Ugrian areas north of the Volga,a large part of modern Bashkiria to the east,much of the Volga region south of the Bulgar territory itself,and the lands of the Finns and east Slavs to the west perhaps as far as the Oka River.Volga Bulgaria was a multhiethnic state,with large numbers of Turkic Bulgars and Bashkirs,a variety of Finnic and Ugrian peoples,and many east Slavs.

    Reuter, T. (Ed.). (2000). The New Cambridge Medieval History (The New Cambridge Medieval History). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp.574 doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521364478

  9. but no one know for bulgarians before Kubrat in Bulgaria.Its so sad our politics dont give a shet for our history .

  10. They colonised areas of the eastern Balkans and in the seventh century other Slav tribes combined with the Proto-Bulgars, a group of Turkic origin, to launch a fresh assault into the Balkans.

    Crampton, R. (2005). THE BULGARIAN LANDS FROM PREHISTORY TO THE ARRIVAL OF THE BULGARIANS. In A Concise History of Bulgaria (Cambridge Concise Histories, pp. 1-8). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Bulgaria at this time had acquired some traits typical of a barbarian state,because the bellicose tribe of the Bulgars had imported the Turkic traditions of the great steppe into the Balkans.

    The Old Testament in Byzantium Edited by Paul Magdalino Robert S. Nelson Washington, D.C. :Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection : Distributed by Harvard University Press, c2010. pp. 255

    The Bulgars were a Turkic tribal confederation that gave rise to the Balkan Bulgar and Volga Bulgar states. The ethnonym derives from the Turkish bulgha-, "to stir, mix, disturb, confuse." The confederation appears to have taken shape among Oghur tribes in the Kazakh steppes following the migrations that were touched off by movements of the Hsiung-nu. Later Byzantine sources (Agathon, Nicephorus Patriarchus, Theophanes) closely associate or identify the Bulgars with the Onoghurs, who were enemies of Sassanid Iran in the late 4th century. When or how this connection developed is unclear. If we discount several (most probably) anachronistic notices on the Bulgars in Moses Kliorenats'i (Moses of Chorene), the earliest references to them are perhaps to be found in an anonymous Latin chronograph of 354: "Vulgares." They are absent from Priscus's account of the migration, ca. 463, of the Oghuric Turks into the Pontic steppes, but by 480 they are noted under their own name as allies of Constantinople against the Ostrogoths. Amity with Byzantium was short-lived. By 489 the Bulgars had initiated a series of raids on Byzantine Balkan possessions. Their habitat, at this stage, appears to have been in the eastern Pontic steppes stretch-ing into the Azov region and North Caucasus. It is here that Jordanes and Pseudo-Zacharius Ithetor place them in the mid-6th century. Shortly afterward, they were overrun and subjugated by the Avars and then the Turks. When Turk rule weakened, sometime after 600, the Avars appear to have reestablished some control over the region. It was against Avar rule that the Bulgars-under their leader Qubrat, whom Heraclius had been cultivating for some rime (he and his uncle were baptized in Constantinople to 619)—revolted ca. 631-632 and founded the Onoghundur-Bulgar state. Some time after Qubrat's death (660s), this Pontic – Maeotun Bulgaria, whose Balkan descendents would also claim Attilid origins, came into conflict with the Khazar khaganate, successor to the Turk empire in western Eurasia. The Khazars emerged victorious from the contest, and parts of the Bulgar union broke up and migrated. One grouping under Asperukh in 679 crossed the Danube into Moesia and, having subjugated a local Slavic confederatton, there laid the foundation for the Balkan Bulgarian state. Yet other groups joined the Avar state in Pannonia (where some would prove to be rebellious subjects or took up restience in Italy around the five Rasennate cities, to live as Byzantine subjects.The other Bulgars either remained in the Pontic steppe zone the (the “Black Bulgars” of Byzantine and Rus’ sources) or later migrated (perhaps as early as the mid-7th century or as late as the mid-8th to early 9th century) to the middle Volga region, giving rise there to the Volga Bulgarian state, which remained, however a vassal of the Khazars. Balkan Bulgaria soon became an important element in Byzantine politics, on occasion supporting contestants to the throne and also helping to defeat the Arab attack on Constantinople of 717-18.The iconoclastic Emperor Constantine (741-775) began a series of wars against them that remained a constant theme of Byzantine-Bulgarian relations until the destruction of the first Bulgarian empire by Basil II (976-1025).In 864 the Bulgarian king Boris, outmaneuvered by Constantinople, converted to Christianity. Thereafter, the Turkic Bulgars underwent Slavicization, and Balkan Bulgaria became one of the centers of medieval Slavic. The Volga Bulgars, however, converted to Islam in the early 10th century and created a highly sophisticated, urbane, mercantile Muslim society that, after stout resistance, was conquered by the Mongols in the early 13th century.

    Bowersock, Glen W. & al. Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World s.354. Harvard University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-674-51173-5.

  11. Volga Bulgaria (Tatar: Идел Болгар, Chuvash: Атӑлҫи Пӑлхар) or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar[2][3][4] state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama River, in what is now European Russia. Volga Bulgaria was a multi-ethnic state with large numbers of Turkic Bulgars, a variety of Finnic and Ugric peoples, and many East Slavs.[5] The very strategic position of Volga Bulgaria allowed it to create a monopoly between the trade of Arabs, Norse and Avars.[6]

  12. The endangered Chuvash language is the only living representative of the Bulgar branch, the earliest offshoot of Proto-Turkic (PT), which is in many respects opposed to the Common Turkic (CT) languages. Evidence from Chuvash is of vital importance in reconstructing Proto-Turkic, particularly its phonology. Chuvash represents characteristic features of the Bulgar branch, such as two types of rhotacism (PT *ŕ > CT /z/, Bulg. /r/; PT *δ > Bulg. /r/ with /j/, /d/, /t/ and /z/ in different subgroups of CT), lambdacism (PT *λ > CT /š/, Bulg. /l/), the “Bulgar palatalization” (PT *s- > Bulg. /š-/ and PT *t- > Bulg. /č-/ in certain contexts) etc. (Dybo 2010; Róna-Tas & Berta 2011). These correspondences provide a more complete reconstruction of the Proto-Turkic phonological system.

  13. Bulgars (Turkic bulgha-'to mix, stir up, disturb', i.e. 'rebels') A Turkic tribal union of the Pontic steppes that gave rise to two important states: Danubian Balkan Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire, 681–1018) and Volga Bulgaria (early 10th century–1241). They derived from Oghuric-Turkic tribes, driven westward from Mongolia and south Siberia to the Pontic steppes in successive waves by turmoil associated with the Xiungnu and subsequently by warfare between the Rouran/Avar and northern Wei states. in Oliver Nicholson, The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity, Oxford University Press, 2018, ISBN 0192562460, p. 271..

    The area was thus intimately known at an early stage to the Byzantine Empire. By the late seventh century Bulgar ( Turkic ) tribes had crossed the Dan- ube southward and formed the basis of a kingdom under the khans.

    “Orthodox Life under and after Islamic Dominion.” The Eastern Orthodox Church: A New History, by JOHN ANTHONY McGUCKIN, Yale University Press, New Haven; London, 2020, pp. 181–214.

    On the other hand, Arzhantseva argues that some of the fortresses were captured by the Turkic peoples who were likely to be Kuban Bulgars

    Vorderstrasse, Tasha. “Buddhism on the Shores of the Black Sea: The North Caucasus Frontier between the Muslims, Byzantines, and Khazars.” The Archaeology of Medieval Islamic Frontiers: From the Mediterranean to the Caspian Sea, edited by A. Asa Eger, University Press of Colorado, Louisville; Colorado, 2019, pp. 168–194.

    The Bulghars coming into the Balkans in the seventh and eighth centuries soon lost their Turkic language and accepted Christianity in its Greek guise.

    Amitai, Reuven. “ISLAMISATION IN THE SOUTHERN LEVANT AFTER THE END OF FRANKISH RULE: SOME GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS AND A SHORT CASE STUDY.” Islamisation: Comparative Perspectives from History, edited by A. C. S. Peacock, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2017, pp. 156–186.

    The Horde’s population was mostly comprised of different Turkic- speaking groups such as the Cuman-Qipchaqs and the Volga Bulghars

    KOVÁCS, SZILVIA. “Taydula: A Golden Horde Queen and Patron of Christian Merchants.” Along the Silk Roads in Mongol Eurasia: Generals, Merchants, and Intellectuals, edited by Michal Biran et al., 1st ed., University of California Press, Oakland, California, 2020, pp. 194–212.

    now known to us only from fragments of the Turkic language of the Bulghars on the middle Volga in early Islamic times and from modern Chuvash

    Bosworth, C. Edmund. “THE ORIGINS OF THE SELJUQS.” The Seljuqs: Politics, Society and Culture, edited by CHRISTIAN LANGE and SONGÜL MECIT, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2011, pp. 13–21.

    in the 460s that we have firm evidence for Turkic-speaking peoples. The Oghuric Turks (Oghurs, Shara Oghurs, Ono- ghurs, Bulghars , and others), however, spoke a form of Turkic that is distinct from what has come to be termed Common Turkic.

    Golden, Peter B. “Some Thoughts on the Origins of the Turks and the Shaping of the Turkic Peoples.” Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World, edited by Victor H. Mair, University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 2006, pp. 136–157.

    The Volga Bulgars were a Turkic -speaking people who established the second Muslim state in Europe (after the Emirate of Córdoba)

    Mako, Gerald. “The Conversion of the Volga Bulgars: Aḥmad b. Faḍlān b. Al-ʿAbbās b. Rāshid b. Ḥammād (Fl. Fourth/Tenth Century).” Conversion to Islam in the Premodern Age: A Sourcebook, edited by Nimrod Hurvitz et al., 1st ed., University of California Press, Oakland, California, 2020, pp. 156–159.

    Kama and the Volga, was dominated by the Bul- gars, a Turkic people who had settled there in the seventh century.

    “The Volga.” Rivers in Russian Literature, by Margaret Ziolkowski, University of Delaware Press, Newark, 2020, pp. 63–101.

    Bulgar – Turkic tribes known as Onogurs, us, there is much consensus regarding their cultural achieve- from which the name Hungarian derives.

    “Central Europe, 9th Century.” Historical Atlas of Central Europe: Third Revised and Expanded Edition, by Paul Robert Magocsi, University of Toronto Press, Toronto; Buffalo; London, 2018, pp. 10–12.

    The Turkic -speaking Bulgars themselves appear not to have been very numerous, perhaps no more than ten thousand warriors who took over the leadership of a larger group

    Wachtel, Andrew. “Early Balkan Everyday Life.” Everyday Life in the Balkans, edited by DAVID W. MONTGOMERY, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, 2019, pp. 9–21.

    The Bulgar peoples had settled in present-day Bulgaria in the seventh century, forming the so-called First Bulgarian Empire. The Bulgars were originally a Turkic people who had intermarried with Slavs after settling in the Balkans.

    “Who Has Authority over Newly Christianized Nations?” Twenty Questions That Shaped World Christian History, by Derek Cooper, 1517 Media, Minneapolis, 2015, pp. 137–154.

    At the time,the new Khazar qaganate was expanding westward,squeezing out the Onogurs,or Bulghars as they begin to be named. One of the Kuvrat’s sons,the Asparuch (Asparux,Isperih) now celebrated as the founder of Bulgaria,forcibly crossed to the Danube arpund 679 to occupy imperial territory Moesia after defeating the forces of Constantine IV (668-685). The event is recorded in the preserved text of a Hebrew letter of a Khazar qahan,who wrote that the Vununtur(=Onogurs=Bulghars) has fled across the Duna,the Danube. Even if numerous for the steppe,Asparuch’s pastoralist warriors and their families were of necessity relatively few as compared to the agricultural Slav population that lived south of the Danube,and thus the Turkic-speaking Bulghars were assimilated linguistically by the Slav majority to form the medieval and modern Bulgarians. This particular ethnogenesis occuree gradually over a period of more than two centuries: there was the Turkic qan (or khan) Krum (803-814),Qan Omurtag (814-831),Qan Presian (836-852),then the wan who converted Boris I (852-889);then came Tsar Symeon (893-923), Tsar Peter I (927-970),and so on.But this transformation of Turkic shamanists into Slavic Christians did nothing to diminish the warlike character of the empire’s new neighbours. Because even warlike neighbours can be useful at times,the relations between the empire and the new Bulghar qaganate encompassed every possible variation,from intimate allience to all out-war,as exemplified by the career of the Bulghar qan or khan Tervel (or Tarvel-Terbelis in our Greek sources),the successor and probably son of Asparukh who ruled for some twenty-one years within the period 695-721,extant chronologies being inconsistent.

    “Bulghars and Bulgarians.” The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire, by EDWARD N. LUTTWAK, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts; London, England, 2009, pp. 173

    The strategic and economic importance of this juncture is clear: in an age when much long-distance travel was by water, the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers provided a three-way maritime link between Europe, the Near East, and East Asia. The Turkic Bulgars were among the first to benefit

    “THE KAZAN SCHOOL.” Russian Orientalism: Asia in the Russian Mind from Peter the Great to the Emigration, by David Schimmelpenninck Van der Oye, Yale University Press, New Haven; London, 2010, pp. 93–121.

    The confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, to the east, was inhabited by the Bulgars, a Turkic

    people, and the southeastern steppes by the Khazars, another Turkic people who had formed a strong state in the seventh century, barring alike the westward movement of other nomadic tribes

    “Russian Expansion in Kievan Times.” Eastward to Empire: Exploration and Conquest on the Russian Open Frontier to 1750, by George V. Lantzeff and Richard A. Pierce, McGill-Queen's University Press, MONTREAL; LONDON, 1973, pp. 21–30.

    The Bul- gars, a Turkic people, unlike the Slavic Croats and Serbs, moved south ofthe Danube in 679 and soon created a state, in which the numerically small Proto- Bulgarelement in due course became completely assimilated with the Slavic majority

    “Antecedents and Antipodes.” The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics, by IVO BANAC, Cornell University Press, Ithaca; London, 1984, pp. 21–140.

    The word boyar is of Turkic origin, introduced into the Balkan Peninsula by the Bulgars in the 7th century. As the Turkic -speaking Bulgar conquerors became Slavicized, they joined with the Slavic clan chiefs

    “Nobles and Landholders.” East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, by JEAN W. SEDLAR, University of Washington Press, Seattle; London, 1994, pp. 58–83.

    " Bulgar " originally designated a Turkic -speaking people; now it designates the Slavic-speaking people who assimilated them.

    “National Symbols and the International Recognition of the Republic of Macedonia.” The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World, by Loring M. Danforth, Princeton University Press, PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY, 1995, pp. 142–184.

  14. The Volga Bulgars were a Turkic-speaking people who established the second Muslim state in Europe (after the Emirate of Córdoba) in the early fourth/tenth century and ruled over extensive lands and a wide array of people around the middle Volga and Kama Rivers between the second/ninth and early seventh/thirteenth centuries. The Bulgars acted as middlemen between Central Asian merchants and the Rus, and the northern, mainly Finno-Ugric tribes whose main trading commodity was fur, which was greatly valued as a luxury item throughout the Islamic world.

    Mako, Gerald. “The Conversion of the Volga Bulgars: Aḥmad b. Faḍlān b. Al-ʿAbbās b. Rāshid b. Ḥammād (Fl. Fourth/Tenth Century).” Conversion to Islam in the Premodern Age: A Sourcebook, edited by Nimrod Hurvitz et al., 1st ed., University of California Press, Oakland, California, 2020, pp. 156–159.

    The period is marked by the migration of the final “permanent residents” of the Balkan Peninsula to the region: these were, most important—because eventually most numerous—the Slavs, but also the Turks (first Bulgars and then Ottomans)

    Wachtel, Andrew. “Early Balkan Everyday Life.” Everyday Life in the Balkans, edited by DAVID W. MONTGOMERY, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, 2019, pp. 9–21.

    The Samara is the last westward migrations and military campaigns of, first, the significant tributary of the Volga; past the Samara, the rivers Turkic-speaking Bulgars

    Mochalov, Oleg D., et al. “Historic Records of the Economy and Ethnic History of the Samara Region.” A Bronze Age Landscape in the Russian Steppes: The Samara Valley Project, edited by Oleg D. Mochalov et al., Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press at UCLA, 2016, pp. 63–70.

    The Volga Bulgars , a settled Turkic people, were a society that practiced Islam on the Eurasian steppe

    “Siberia in Eurasian Context.” The Merchants of Siberia: Trade in Early Modern Eurasia, by Erika Monahan, 1st ed., Cornell University Press, 2016, pp. 71–104.

    The Turkic Bulgars were among the first to benefit from the region’s commercial advantages by settling it in the fifth century c.e. and found- ing the city of Bolgar

    “THE KAZAN SCHOOL.” Russian Orientalism: Asia in the Russian Mind from Peter the Great to the Emigration, by David Schimmelpenninck Van der Oye, Yale University Press, New Haven; London, 2010, pp. 93–121.

    The confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, to the east, was inhabited by the Bulgars, a Turkic people, and the southeastern steppes by the Khazars, another Turkic people who had formed a strong state in the seventh century,

    “Russian Expansion in Kievan Times.” Eastward to Empire: Exploration and Conquest on the Russian Open Frontier to 1750, by George V. Lantzeff and Richard A. Pierce, McGill-Queen's University Press, MONTREAL; LONDON, 1973, pp. 21–30.

    The Huns of the Western Steppe appear to have formed an element of the later Danubian Bulgars, a Turkic people who, under Asparukh, moved into the Balkans in 680 and founded

    “The Age of Attila the Hun.” Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present, by CHRISTOPHER I. BECKWITH, Princeton University Press, Princeton; Oxford, 2009, pp. 93–111.

    In the mid- ninth century Khan Boris ruled a pagan Bulgaria that was composed of both Turkic Bulgars and Slavs.

    “The Micro-Christendom of Rus'.” Reimagining Europe, by Christian Raffensperger, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts; London, England, 2012, pp. 136–185.

    the Turkic speaking Volga Kama Bulgars

    “Muslims in Europe: Precedent and Present.” Muslims of Europe: The 'Other' Europeans, by H. A. Hellyer, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2009, pp. 101–120.

    the Bulgars( Turkic speakers who invaded the Balkans in the seventh century)

    “Round Two: The Rise and Spread of Agricultural Societies.” The Next World War: Tribes, Cities, Nations, and Ecological Decline, by ROY WOODBRIDGE, University of Toronto Press, 2004, pp. 49–58.

    served as the secretary of an embassy sent by the Caliph al- Muqtadir to the king of the Turkish Bulgars then living on the lower reaches of the Volga River north of the Caspian Sea.

    “THE BIG CHILL.” Cotton, Climate, and Camels in Early Islamic Iran: A Moment in World History, by Richard W. Bulliet, Columbia University Press, NEW YORK, 2009, pp. 69–95.

    Turkic speaking Bulgars into the region now known as Bulgaria failed to alter its predominantly Slavic char acter. The Bulgar ruling class eventually abandoned its Thrkic language and adopted Slavic so completely that no trace of Turkicspeech patterns can be found in any Old Slavic texts.

    “Languages and Literatures.” East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, by JEAN W. SEDLAR, University of Washington Press, Seattle; London, 1994, pp. 421–457.

    Byzantine power was challenged by Thrkic-speaking Bulgars from the Ukrainian steppe who carved out a tribal state from the empire's Balkan lands.

    “Foreign Affairs.” East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, by JEAN W. SEDLAR, University of Washington Press, Seattle; London, 1994, pp. 362–400.

    When the Turkic -speaking Bulgars first occupied their present

    “Nobles and Landholders.” East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, by JEAN W. SEDLAR, University of Washington Press, Seattle; London, 1994, pp. 58–83.

    and with the Turkic people, the Bulgars , on the east bank of the Volga.

    “Conclusions.” Eastward to Empire: Exploration and Conquest on the Russian Open Frontier to 1750, by George V. Lantzeff and Richard A. Pierce, McGill-Queen's University Press, MONTREAL; LONDON, 1973, pp. 221–230.

    alleged to be constructions of the Turkic Bulgars , are notable.

    Pundeff, Marin. “Bulgarian Historiography, 1942-1958.” The American Historical Review, vol. 66, no. 3, 1961, pp. 682–693.

    They colonised areas of the eastern Balkans and in the seventh century other Slav tribes combined with the Proto-Bulgars, a group of Turkic origin, to launch a fresh assault into the Balkans.

    Crampton, R. (2005). THE BULGARIAN LANDS FROM PREHISTORY TO THE ARRIVAL OF THE BULGARIANS. In A Concise History of Bulgaria (Cambridge Concise Histories, pp. 1-8). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    In my lecture I emphasised the fact that the ear liest written record the of the Bulghar- Turkic sound shift к > / could be traced even in the early Turkic loan-words of the Hungarian language.

    Róna-Tas, András. “WHERE WAS KHUVRAT'S BULGHARIA?” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, vol. 53, no. 1/2, 2000, pp. 1–22.

    followed by the Avars (Turki invaders of sixth to eighth centuries AD who were eventually evicte from Hungary by Charlemagne), the Bulgars ( Turkic speakers who invaded the Balkans in the seventh century)

    “Round Two: The Rise and Spread of Agricultural Societies.” The Next World War: Tribes, Cities, Nations, and Ecological Decline, by ROY WOODBRIDGE, University of Toronto Press, 2004, pp. 49–58.

  15. Turkish Bulgar Empire

    Bulgars (< Turkic bulgha- ‘to mix, stir up, disturb’, i.e. ‘rebels’)

    A Turkic tribal union of the Pontic steppes that gave rise to two important states: Danubian-Balkan Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire, 681–1018) and Volga Bulgaria (early 10th century–1241). They derived from Oghuric-Turkic tribes, driven westward from Mongolia and south Siberia to the Pontic steppes in successive waves by turmoil associated with the Xiongnu (late 3rd cent. … …

    https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780198662778.001.0001/acref-9780198662778-e-820

    Kubrat (Gk. Kobratos, called Kurt in the Slavo-Turko-Bulgar Imennik or Name-List of Khans, 20, derived from Turkic quvrat ‘to bring together’)

    Ruler of the *Onoghurs (Ononghundur) *Bulgars (c.605–42/65?). *John of *Nikiu (120, 47) reports that he became a Christian in … …

    https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780198662778.001.0001/acref-9780198662778-e-2674

    Utrigurs (Utighurs)

    Oghur-Bulghar Turkic group, located south-east of the Don River, near the Sea of Azov, and traditional enemies of the related … …

    https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780198662778.001.0001/acref-9780198662778-e-4918

    Bolgar, Tatarstan/Russia (Bulgar, Bulgar al-Cadid, Kuybyshev)

    By the 15th century it was known as Bulgar al-Cadid ‘New Bulgar’ after the Turkic-speaking Volga Bulgars.

    https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780191905636.001.0001/acref-9780191905636-e-8397

    Bulgars, Turkic,

    also Proto-Bulgarians, Pra-Bulgarians, a pastoral people, originally living in Central Asia. Swept westward in the great movement of steppe peoples …

    https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195046526.001.0001/acref-9780195046526-e-0850

    Kuvrat

    (Κοβρα̑τος, according to Moravcsik, Byzantinoturcica 2:161f), khan of the Onogur Bulgars; died after 642. Patr. Nikephoros I mentions his revolt against the Avars and alliance with Herakleios; Kuvrat was granted …

    https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100045529

    Kubrat , of the royal Duloclan, ‘lord of the Ononghundur-Bulgars and Kotrags [Kutrigurs?]’

    https://www.oxfordreference.com/search?q=Dulo+clan&searchBtn=Search&isQuickSearch=true

    Originally Asiatic nomads who inhabited the shores of the Black Sea at the end of the 5th century ad but after ad 679 they crossed the Danube and founded a state in the old province of Moesia.

    https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095534628

    https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199534043.001.0001/acref-9780199534043-e-582

    They spoke Oghur-Bulghar Turkic and moved into the western Siberian steppe after the Huns left for Europe.

    https://www.oxfordreference.com/search?q=Saraghurs&searchBtn=Search&isQuickSearch=true

    The Volga Tatars live in the central and eastern parts of European Russia and in western Siberia. They are the descendants of the Bulgar and Kipchak Turkic tribes who inhabited the western wing of the Mongol Empire, the area of the middle Volga River.

    https://academic.oup.com/mbe/article/27/10/2220/963437

    Chuvash is the sole living representative of the Bulgharic branch, one of the two principal branches of the Turkic family.

    https://oxford.universitypressscholarship.com/mobile/view/10.1093/oso/9780198804628.001.0001/oso-9780198804628-chapter-28

    In the different classifications proposed so far, there is a wide consensus that the earliest split in the family was between the Bulgharic (also known as ‘Oghuric’) branch, which today only survives in Chuvash, and the Common Turkic branch, which is ancestral to all other contemporary Turkic languages.

    https://academic.oup.com/jole/article/5/1/39/5736268

    Many Slavic tribes lived within the boundaries of the state, together with the proto-Bulgarians, a tribe of Turkic origin that had settled in the Balkan Peninsula at the end of the 7th century.

    https://www.britannica.com/biography/Boris-I

    The language of the European Huns is sometimes referred to as a Bulghar Turkic variety in general linguistic literature, but caution is needed in establishing its affiliations.

    https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/4CBA0E2CB74C8093EC1CA38C95067D55/S2513843X20000183a_hi.pdf/_div_class__title__Early_nomads_of_the_Eastern_Steppe_and_their_tentative_connections_in_the_West__div_.pdf

    In the Hunno-Bulgarian languages /r/ within a consonantic cluster

    tends to disappear

    https://projects.iq.harvard.edu/files/huri/files/vvi_n4_dec1982.pdf

    An earlier date for the separation of proto-Turkic, preceding 209 BC would support the identification of Xiongnu language with proto-Bulgharic or one of its subgroups, while a later date of separation would make its association with proto-Turkic more plausible.

    https://academic.oup.com/jole/article-pdf/5/1/39/32972809/lzz010.pdf

    The Bulgars were a Turkic tribal confederation that gave rise to the Balkan Bulgar and Volga Bulgar states.The ethynonym derives from the Turkish bulgha-,”to stir,mix,disturb,confuse.”

    https://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674511736

    https://books.google.com.tr/books?id=c788wWR_bLwC&pg=PA354&redir_esc=y&hl=tr#v=onepage&q=Bulgars&f=false (Harvard University Press)

    Turkish tribes who founded a kingdom (9th-12th century) in the region between the Volga and the Kama.

    https://www.larousse.fr/encyclopedie/divers/Bulgares_de_la_Volga_et_de_la_Kama/110545

    The Bulgars,,Turkish people who were formed on the Don.

    https://www.universalis.fr/recherche/l/1/napp/23625

    Although the Bulgars were originally a Turkic-speaking people from Asia, they merged with the Slavic tribes whom they conquered in the 7th cent.

    https://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/arts/language/linguistics/bulgarian-language

    The Volga Bulgars, a Turkish tribe then living on the east bank of the Volga River, … the laws of Islam to the Bulgars, who had recently converted to the religion.

    http://www.bookrags.com/research/ahmad-ibn-fadlan-ued/#gsc.tab=0

  16. The Volga Bulgars were a Turkic-speaking people who established the second Muslim state in Europe (after the Emirate of Córdoba) in the early fourth/tenth century and ruled over extensive lands and a wide array of people around the middle Volga and Kama Rivers between the second/ninth and early seventh/thirteenth centuries. The Bulgars acted as middlemen between Central Asian merchants and the Rus, and the northern, mainly Finno-Ugric tribes whose main trading commodity was fur, which was greatly valued as a luxury item throughout the Islamic world.

    Mako, Gerald. “The Conversion of the Volga Bulgars: Aḥmad b. Faḍlān b. Al-ʿAbbās b. Rāshid b. Ḥammād (Fl. Fourth/Tenth Century).” Conversion to Islam in the Premodern Age: A Sourcebook, edited by Nimrod Hurvitz et al., 1st ed., University of California Press, Oakland, California, 2020, pp. 156–159.

    The period is marked by the migration of the final “permanent residents” of the Balkan Peninsula to the region: these were, most important—because eventually most numerous—the Slavs, but also the Turks (first Bulgars and then Ottomans)

    Wachtel, Andrew. “Early Balkan Everyday Life.” Everyday Life in the Balkans, edited by DAVID W. MONTGOMERY, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, 2019, pp. 9–21.

    The Samara is the last westward migrations and military campaigns of, first, the significant tributary of the Volga; past the Samara, the rivers Turkic-speaking Bulgars

    Mochalov, Oleg D., et al. “Historic Records of the Economy and Ethnic History of the Samara Region.” A Bronze Age Landscape in the Russian Steppes: The Samara Valley Project, edited by Oleg D. Mochalov et al., Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press at UCLA, 2016, pp. 63–70.

    The Volga Bulgars , a settled Turkic people, were a society that practiced Islam on the Eurasian steppe

    “Siberia in Eurasian Context.” The Merchants of Siberia: Trade in Early Modern Eurasia, by Erika Monahan, 1st ed., Cornell University Press, 2016, pp. 71–104.

    The Turkic Bulgars were among the first to benefit from the region’s commercial advantages by settling it in the fifth century c.e. and found- ing the city of Bolgar

    “THE KAZAN SCHOOL.” Russian Orientalism: Asia in the Russian Mind from Peter the Great to the Emigration, by David Schimmelpenninck Van der Oye, Yale University Press, New Haven; London, 2010, pp. 93–121.

    The confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, to the east, was inhabited by the Bulgars, a Turkic people, and the southeastern steppes by the Khazars, another Turkic people who had formed a strong state in the seventh century,

    “Russian Expansion in Kievan Times.” Eastward to Empire: Exploration and Conquest on the Russian Open Frontier to 1750, by George V. Lantzeff and Richard A. Pierce, McGill-Queen's University Press, MONTREAL; LONDON, 1973, pp. 21–30.

    The Huns of the Western Steppe appear to have formed an element of the later Danubian Bulgars, a Turkic people who, under Asparukh, moved into the Balkans in 680 and founded

    “The Age of Attila the Hun.” Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present, by CHRISTOPHER I. BECKWITH, Princeton University Press, Princeton; Oxford, 2009, pp. 93–111.

    In the mid- ninth century Khan Boris ruled a pagan Bulgaria that was composed of both Turkic Bulgars and Slavs.

    “The Micro-Christendom of Rus'.” Reimagining Europe, by Christian Raffensperger, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts; London, England, 2012, pp. 136–185.

    the Turkic speaking Volga Kama Bulgars

    “Muslims in Europe: Precedent and Present.” Muslims of Europe: The 'Other' Europeans, by H. A. Hellyer, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2009, pp. 101–120.

    the Bulgars( Turkic speakers who invaded the Balkans in the seventh century)

    “Round Two: The Rise and Spread of Agricultural Societies.” The Next World War: Tribes, Cities, Nations, and Ecological Decline, by ROY WOODBRIDGE, University of Toronto Press, 2004, pp. 49–58.

    served as the secretary of an embassy sent by the Caliph al- Muqtadir to the king of the Turkish Bulgars then living on the lower reaches of the Volga River north of the Caspian Sea.

    “THE BIG CHILL.” Cotton, Climate, and Camels in Early Islamic Iran: A Moment in World History, by Richard W. Bulliet, Columbia University Press, NEW YORK, 2009, pp. 69–95.

    Turkic speaking Bulgars into the region now known as Bulgaria failed to alter its predominantly Slavic char acter. The Bulgar ruling class eventually abandoned its Thrkic language and adopted Slavic so completely that no trace of Turkicspeech patterns can be found in any Old Slavic texts.

    “Languages and Literatures.” East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, by JEAN W. SEDLAR, University of Washington Press, Seattle; London, 1994, pp. 421–457.

    Byzantine power was challenged by Thrkic-speaking Bulgars from the Ukrainian steppe who carved out a tribal state from the empire's Balkan lands.

    “Foreign Affairs.” East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, by JEAN W. SEDLAR, University of Washington Press, Seattle; London, 1994, pp. 362–400.

    When the Turkic -speaking Bulgars first occupied their present

    “Nobles and Landholders.” East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, by JEAN W. SEDLAR, University of Washington Press, Seattle; London, 1994, pp. 58–83.

    and with the Turkic people, the Bulgars , on the east bank of the Volga.

    “Conclusions.” Eastward to Empire: Exploration and Conquest on the Russian Open Frontier to 1750, by George V. Lantzeff and Richard A. Pierce, McGill-Queen's University Press, MONTREAL; LONDON, 1973, pp. 221–230.

    alleged to be constructions of the Turkic Bulgars , are notable.

    Pundeff, Marin. “Bulgarian Historiography, 1942-1958.” The American Historical Review, vol. 66, no. 3, 1961, pp. 682–693.

    They colonised areas of the eastern Balkans and in the seventh century other Slav tribes combined with the Proto-Bulgars, a group of Turkic origin, to launch a fresh assault into the Balkans.

    Crampton, R. (2005). THE BULGARIAN LANDS FROM PREHISTORY TO THE ARRIVAL OF THE BULGARIANS. In A Concise History of Bulgaria (Cambridge Concise Histories, pp. 1-8). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    In my lecture I emphasised the fact that the ear liest written record the of the Bulghar- Turkic sound shift к > / could be traced even in the early Turkic loan-words of the Hungarian language.

    Róna-Tas, András. “WHERE WAS KHUVRAT'S BULGHARIA?” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, vol. 53, no. 1/2, 2000, pp. 1–22.

    followed by the Avars (Turki invaders of sixth to eighth centuries AD who were eventually evicte from Hungary by Charlemagne), the Bulgars ( Turkic speakers who invaded the Balkans in the seventh century)

    “Round Two: The Rise and Spread of Agricultural Societies.” The Next World War: Tribes, Cities, Nations, and Ecological Decline, by ROY WOODBRIDGE, University of Toronto Press, 2004, pp. 49–58.

    Bulgars (Turkic bulgha-'to mix, stir up, disturb', i.e. 'rebels') A Turkic tribal union of the Pontic steppes that gave rise to two important states: Danubian Balkan Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire, 681–1018) and Volga Bulgaria (early 10th century–1241). They derived from Oghuric-Turkic tribes, driven westward from Mongolia and south Siberia to the Pontic steppes in successive waves by turmoil associated with the Xiungnu and subsequently by warfare between the Rouran/Avar and northern Wei states. in Oliver Nicholson, The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity, Oxford University Press, 2018, ISBN 0192562460, p. 271..

  17. Around 4% of Bulgarian genes are derived outside of Europe and the Middle East or are of undetermined origin (by 858 CE), of which 2.3% are from Northeast Asia and correspond to Asian tribes such as Bulgars,[13] a consistent very low frequency for Eastern Europe as far as Uralic-speaking Hungarians.

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_studies_on_Bulgarians

    Science, 14 February 2014, Vol. 343 no. 6172, p. 751, A Genetic Atlas of Human Admixture History, Garrett Hellenthal at al.: " CIs. for the admixture time(s) overlap but predate the Mongol empire, with estimates from 440 to 1080 CE (Fig.3.) In each population, one source group has at least some ancestry related to Northeast Asians, with ~2 to 4% of these groups total ancestry linking directly to East Asia. This signal might correspond to a small genetic legacy from invasions of peoples from the Asian steppes (e.g., the Huns, Magyars, and Bulgars) during the first millennium CE."

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4209567/figure/F3/

    Bulgars (< Turkic bulgha- ‘to mix, stir up, disturb’, i.e. ‘rebels’)

    A Turkic tribal union of the Pontic steppes that gave rise to two important states: Danubian-Balkan Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire, 681–1018) and Volga Bulgaria (early 10th century–1241). They derived from Oghuric-Turkic tribes, driven westward from Mongolia and south Siberia to the Pontic steppes in successive waves by turmoil associated with the Xiongnu (late 3rd cent. … …

    https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780198662778.001.0001/acref-9780198662778-e-820

  18. Bulgars are Turks(of Onogur tribe) according to historical sources and most specialist historians

    Mahmud al Kashgari/Diwan Lughat al Turk

    https://books.google.com.tr/books?id=apGfDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA6&dq=divanu+lugatit+turk&hl=tr&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjmrbTj4ZLrAhXKRBUIHSn1C9EQ6AEIJzAA#v=onepage&q=Bulgar&f=false

    You ask us also in your epistle: "Of what people, of what family, and of what tribe are you?" Know that we are descended from Japheth, through his son Togarmah. [In Jewish literature Togarmah is the father of all the Turks.] I have found in the genealogical books of my ancestors that Togarmah had ten sons. These are their names: the eldest was Ujur, the second Tauris, the third Avar, the fourth Uauz, the fifth Bizal, the sixth Tarna, the seventh Khazar, the eighth Janur, the ninth Bulgar, the tenth Sawir. [These are the mythical founders of tribes that once lived in the neighborhood of the Black and Caspian Seas.] I am a descendant of Khazar, the seventh son.

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khazar_Correspondence#King_Joseph's_reply

    The Volga Bulgars, a Turkish tribe then living on the east bank of the Volga River, … the laws of Islam to the Bulgars, who had recently converted to the religion.

    http://www.bookrags.com/research/ahmad-ibn-fadlan-ued/#gsc.tab=0

    Ibn Fadlan served as the group's religious advisor, a crucial role: among the purposes of their mission was to explain Islamic Law to the recently converted Bulgar peoples, a Turkish tribe living on the eastern bank of the Volga River. (These were the Volga Bulgars; another group of Bulgars had moved westward in the sixth century, invading the country that today bears their name, and became Christians.)

    https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/ahmad-ibn-fadlan

    Theophanes the Confessor called him "king of the Onogundur Huns".[5] Patriarch Nikephoros I(758–828) called Kubrat "lord of the Onuğundur"[6] and "ruler of the Onuğundur–Bulğars".[7] John of Nikiu (fl. 696) called him "chief of the Huns".[6] D. Hupchick identified Kubrat as "Onogur",[4] P. Golden as "Oğuro-Bulğar",[6] H. J. Kim as "Bulgar Hunnic/Hunnic Bulgar".[8]

    Bulgars (Turkic bulgha-'to mix, stir up, disturb', i.e. 'rebels') A Turkic tribal union of the Pontic steppes that gave rise to two important states: Danubian Balkan Bulgaria (First Bulgarian Empire, 681–1018) and Volga Bulgaria (early 10th century–1241). They derived from Oghuric-Turkic tribes, driven westward from Mongolia and south Siberia to the Pontic steppes in successive waves by turmoil associated with the Xiungnu and subsequently by warfare between the Rouran/Avar and northern Wei states. in Oliver Nicholson, The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity, Oxford University Press, 2018, ISBN 0192562460, p. 271..

    Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Byzantine Greek: Παλαιά Μεγάλη Βουλγαρία, Palaiá Megálē Voulgaría), also often known by the Latin names Magna Bulgaria[3] and Patria Onoguria ("Onogur land"),[4] was a 7th-century state formed by the Onogur Bulgars on the western Pontic-Caspian steppe (modern southern Ukraine and southwest Russia).[5] Great Bulgaria was originally centered between the Dniester and lower Volga.

    Later Byzantine scholars implied that the Bulgars had previously been known as the Onogurs (Onoğur). Agathon wrote about the "nation of Onogur Bulğars"],Nikephoros I stated that Kubrat was lord of the Onogundurs, Theophanes referred to them as Onogundur Bulgars and Constantine VII remarked that the Bulgars formerly called themselves Onogundurs. Variations of the name include Onoguri, Onoghuri, Onghur, Ongur, Onghuri, Onguri, Onogundur, Unogundur, and Unokundur. There are several theories about the origin of the name Onogur. In some Turkic languages on means "10" and ğur "arrow"; and "ten arrows" might imply a federation of ten tribes, i.e. the Western Turkic Khaganate. Within the Turkic languages, "z" sounds in the easternmost languages tend to have become "r" in the westernmost Turkic languages; therefore, the ethnonym Oghuz may be the source of Oghur; that is, on Oğur would mean "ten clans of Oghuz".

    Old Great Bulgaria (Magna Bulgaria[29]), also known as Onoghundur–Bulgars state, or Patria Onoguria in the Ravenna Cosmography.[30][31][20] Constantine VII (mid-10th century) remarked that the Bulgars formerly called themselves Onogundurs.[32]

    Both names are best explained as corresponding to Onogundur, an old name in Greek sources for the Bulgars.

    https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/khazars

    Nikephoros I stated that Kubrat was lord of the Onogundurs, Theophanes referred to them as Onogundur Bulgars and Constantine VIIremarked that the Bulgars formerly called themselves Onogundurs. Variations of the name include Onoguri, Onoghuri, Onghur, Ongur, Onghuri, Onguri, Onogundur, Unogundur, and Unokundur.

  19. Since 1989, Bulgarian nationalism continues to live off cosy reminiscences of the ‘Revival Process’ ideology. Anti-Turkish rhetoric is now reflected in the theories that challenge the thesis of Turkic origin of the Proto-Bulgars. Alongside the ‘Iranian’ or ‘Aryan’ theory, there appeared arguments favouring an autochthonous origin… The ‘parahistoric’ theories, very often politically loaded and have almost nothing to do with objective scientific research in the field of Proto-Bulgarian Studies, could be summarized in several directions:…3)‘Aryan roots’ and the ‘enigmatic Eurasian homeland’. Meanwhile, another group of authors is looking eagerly for the supposed homeland of the ancient Bulgarians in the vast areas of Eurasia, perhaps by conscious or unconscious opposition to the pro-Western orientation of modern Bulgaria. At the same time, with little regard for consistency, they also oppose the Turkic theory, probably because this is in sharp contradiction with the anti-Turkish feelings shared by nationalistic circles. (Dobrev 2005; 2007.) in Claudia-Florentina Dobre, Cristian Emilian ed., Quest for a Suitable Past: Myths and Memory in Central and Eastern Europe, Central European University Press, 2018, ISBN 9633861365, pp. 142-143.

  20. The name Krum is of Turkic origin and means "governor prince" (from qurum"rule, leadership, administration").[4][5]

    Inscription IV:[26]

    Khan sybigi Omurtag, ruler from god […] was […] and made sacrifice to god Tangra […] itchurgu boila […] gold […]

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